What is the difference between C++ and Java?

The main difference between C++ and Java is that C++ is platform dependent while Java is platform independent.

A computer program is a set of instructions that allows the CPU to execute certain tasks. There are several programming languages. Basically, there are two main types of languages ​​such as high level and low level ones. It is easier for programmers to read and understand high-level languages. They follow a simple syntax similar to the English language. C++ and Java are two general purpose high level programming languages.

Key Areas Covered

1. What is C++
     – Definition, Characteristics
2. What is Java
     – Definition, Characteristics
3. What is the difference between C++ and Java?
    – Comparison of key differences

Key terms

C++, high-level language, Java

what is c++

Bjarne Stroustrup developed C++ in 1979 at Bell Labs. It is an enhancement of the C language. In other words, it is a superset of C++. Its original name was C with classes. C++ is a high-level language, but it is also considered a middle-level language because it understands both high-level and low-level language features. Real time systems, operating systems, device drivers are some applications of C++.

C++ is a compiler based language. The compiler converts all source code to machine code at once. Therefore, C++ programs run faster. The CPU can directly execute the converted machine code. The machine code depends on the operating system. Therefore, C++ is platform dependent. Also, the Standard Template Library (STL) is the standard library for C++. It consists of methods to manipulate files, strings, data structures, etc. Programmers can use them in their programs.

Furthermore, it is possible to implement Object Oriented Programming concepts such as inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation and polymorphism, as well as structured programming concepts such as selection (if, else), repetition structures (for, do while, while) etc. using C++. In addition, this language allows dynamic memory allocation. The programmer can free the allocated memory by calling the free() function. Furthermore, it is possible to implement advanced concepts such as multithreading. 

What is Java

Sun Microsystems developed Java at the initiative of James Gosling. Java, being a high-level programming language, allows you to develop secure and robust applications. Web, mobile, high performance distributed systems are some common applications of Java. There are several versions in Java. Java SE is the standard edition while Java ME is for mobile development and Java EE is for enterprise applications.

Java source code is not directly converted to machine code like in C++. First, the source code is converted into intermediate code called byte code. It is executable on any platform that has the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). So Java is platform independent. Furthermore, Java supports object-oriented programming. Therefore, it is easier to model real world scenarios in computer science.

Java provides a garbage collector. Automatically destroys unused objects to make memory management efficient. Normally, running the garbage collector is an automatic process. Therefore, the programmer can concentrate on application development instead of managing memory on their own. Furthermore, it is also possible to implement advanced concepts such as multithreading using Java.

Difference between C++ and Java

Definition

Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. On the other hand, C++, is a general-purpose programming language that has imperative, object-oriented, and generic programming features while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation.

Developed by

Bjarne Stroustrup developed C++ while Sun Microsystems developed Java at the initiative of James Gosling.

platform dependency

The main difference between C++ and Java is that C++ is platform dependent while Java is platform independent.

multiple inheritance

Multiple inheritance is another difference between C++ and Java. C++ supports multiple inheritance. However, Java does not support multiple inheritance directly, but the programmer can use interfaces to accomplish this task.

Compiler / interpreter

C++ is a compiler based language. The compiler converts the source code into machine code. On the other hand, Java uses both compiler and interpreter. Here, the compiler converts the source code to bytecode, and the interpreter executes the bytecode at runtime. Hence, this is another difference between C++ and Java.

goto statement

Also, while C++ has a goto statement, Java does not.

operator overload

Operator overloading is another difference between C++ and Java. C++ supports operator overloading while Java does not support operator overloading.

Structures and joints

Another difference between C++ and Java is that C++ supports structures and unions while Java does not.

Memory management

Also, in C++, memory management is handled by the programmer; However, Java makes the system manage memory.

Portability

Also, the C++ source code must be recompiled according to the platform; therefore, it is not portable. However, Java bytecode is portable to platform-specific JVMs.

Complexity

Complexity is also an important difference between C++ and Java. C++ is more complex than Java.

Difficulty

Thus, Java is easier to learn than C++.

Applications

Also, operating systems, device drivers, network drivers are some applications of C++. Meanwhile, Java is used to develop Windows, mobile, web, and enterprise applications. This is another difference between C++ and Java.

conclusion

C++ and Java are popular programming languages. The main difference between C++ and Java is that C++ is platform dependent while Java is platform independent. Both languages ​​are useful for developing various applications.

Reference:

1.”C Features – Javatpoint.” www.javatpoint.com, available here.
2. “Java Features – Javatpoint.” www.javatpoint.com, available here.

Courtesy image:

1. “ISO C++ Logo” By Jeremy Kratz – (Copyrighted Free Use) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “Java Programming Language Logo” By Source (WP: NFCC #4) (fair use) a via Commons Wikimedia

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