Compare and contrast acids and bases with tabular form
Compare and contrast acids and bases with tabular form Acids and bases play an important role in chemistry. We see them everywhere in our daily lives, from our cleaning agents, soaps, and detergents, to baking soda.
Acids and bases (alkaline earth metallurgical chemical element) are 2 categories of corrosive substances. Any compound with a pH value between zero and seven is considered acidic, while a pH value between seven and fourteen is a base. An acid is called a proton donor, while a base is called a proton acceptor.
Difference in definition Compare and contrast acids and bases with tabular form
- An acid is a molecule or substance that has a pH value less than 7.0 when present in an aqueous solution. An aqueous solution is any solution in which water is a solvent. Acids are called compounds that donate H + (hydrogen ion) to another compound known as a base.
- A base (alkaline) is a molecule or substance that has a pH value greater than 7.0 when present in an aqueous solution. Bases are the exact chemical opposite of acids. In chemistry. They are substances that, in an aqueous solution, release hydroxide ions (OH-).
Arrhenius concept Compare and contrast acids and bases with tabular form
- According to the Arrhenius Concept, an acid raises the concentration of Hydrogen ions when it dissolves in water.
- According to the Arrhenius Concept, a base is a compound that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.
- In the Bronsted-Lowry Concept, acids are substances that donate protons
- The base , on the other hand, are substances that accept protons
Lewis concept Compare and contrast acids and bases with tabular form
- Ions that accept the electron pair (electron pair acceptor – an electrophile), and that have vacant orbitals are called ” Lewis acid .”
- Ions that donate an electron pair (electron pair donor – a nucleophile), and possess a lone pair of electrons are called ‘ Lewis base ‘.
Difference in classification
Acids are classified as:
- Strong acids, such as nitric acid (HNO3), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) respectively.
- Strong Lewis acids, such as AlCl3 (anhydrous aluminum chloride) and BF3 (boron trifluoride).
- Weak concentrated acids, such as acetic acid (CH3COOH) and formic acid (CH2O2).
- Lewis acids with specific reactivity, for example; ZnCl2 (zinc chloride) solutions.
- Superacides, which are extremely strong acids.
The bases are classified as:
- Alkalis or caustics, such as NaOH (sodium hydroxide) and KOH (potassium hydroxide).
- Concentrated weak bases, such as NH3 (ammonia) in a concentrated solution.
- Alkali metals in metallic form, (ie, elemental sodium), and alkali and alkaline earth metal hydrides, ie, NaH (sodium hydride), which function as strong hydrates and bases to produce caustics.
- Superbases, which are extremely strong bases, such as metal amides, alkoxides, (ie NaNH2 – sodium amide) and C4H9Li (butyl), which is an organometallic base.
Difference in chemical formula
- The chemical formula of most acids begins with H. For example, nitric acid (HNO3), carbonic acid in soft drinks (H2CO3), boric acid (H3BO3), hydrochloric acid (HCl), oxalic acid (H2C2O4), citric acid or 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid (H3C6H5O7), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). However, there are exceptions such as acetic acid (CH3COOH).
- The chemical formula of most bases (compounds) has OH at the end. For example, calcium hydroxide or slaked lime, Ca (OH) 2 (paper, flocculant), magnesium hydroxide (Mg (OH) 2) or milk of magnesia, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or caustic soda (cleaning agent, regulator pH), ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) or ammonia water and KOH (potassium hydroxide).
- The acids have a pH below 7.0.
- The base has a pH greater than 7.0, and may even reach 14 if the bases are very strong.
The strength of acids and bases
- Strength of the acids depends on the concentration of the hydronium ions (Umansky, 1991).
- bases Strength depends on the concentration of hydroxide ions.
Differences in physical characteristics
Both acids and bases are different in their physical properties.
When dissolved in water, acids :
- They are sticky
- Has a burning sensation
- Change the blue litmus to red
- They are sour in taste
- They react with bases to neutralize their properties
- Conduct electricity
- React with active metals to release H (Hydrogen)
- It remains colorless when phenolphthalein is added to the solution.
When dissolved in water, the bases :
- They are bitter in taste
- They are (except ammonia)
- Change the red litmus for blue
- They are slippery to the touch
- React with acids to neutralize their respective properties
- It turns pink when phenolphthalein is added to the solution.
Difference in ionization
- The acids are species or compounds which decompose in H2O to form a hydrogen ion (H +). Therefore, it can be said that acids form hydrogen ions by ionization.
- The base lead to ionization hydroxyl ions (Nyasulu et to the, 2013).
Difference in dissociation
- The acid free H + (hydrogen ions) when mixed with water (H20).
- The base free OH- (hydroxide ion) when mixed with water (H20).
Differences in uses Compare and contrast acids and bases with tabular form
Some uses of acids :
- They are used for household cleaning.
- Used for industrial purposes: Acids, that is, sulfuric acid and nitric acid, are commonly used in paints, dyes, fertilizers, and explosives.
- Used as a metal solvent: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used to make aqua regia, which helps dissolve noble metals such as platinum and gold.
- Acids (i.e. sulfuric acid) are used to make batteries for flashlights and cars. Sulfuric acid is also used in mineral processing.
- They are used to prevent oxidation and corrosion of metals, using a technique called “pickling.”
- In the chemical industry, acids are used as neutralizers in the production of salts. For example, nitric acid (HNO3) reacts with ammonia NH3 to produce ammonium nitrate, a fertilizer.
Some uses of the bases:
- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is used in the manufacture of soap, synthetic fiber, rayon, and paper. It is also used in the manufacture of some medicines and in the refining of petroleum, in cleaning sinks, ovens and drains.
- Sodium bicarbonate (NAHCO3) is used in toothpaste, fire extinguisher, and baking soda.
- Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) is used in the manufacture of bleaching powder. It is mixed with water and sand to create a mortar that is used in the construction of buildings. Slaked lime is also used by farmers in the fields to neutralize the dangerous effects of acid rain. Calcium hydroxide also neutralizes acid in water supplies, and is used as a dressing material for acid burns, as an antidote for food poisoning, in fungicide manufacturing, in liming and liming mixes. in dentistry.
- Alkalis (Bases) are used in alkaline batteries such as potassium hydroxide. They are also used in underarm antiperspirant deodorant and in neutralizing soil acidity.
- Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) is used to clean greasy stains from clothing.
Comparison table between acids and bases
|Definition||Substance, mostly liquid, that donates a proton or accepts a pair of electrons in reactions. An acid increases the concentration of H + ions.||A base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution, donates electrons, and accepts protons.|
|Definition of Bronsted Lowry||An acid is a proton donor.||A base accepts a proton.|
|pH (concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution)||Acids have a pH value <7.||Bases have a pH value> 7.|
|Phenolphthalein indicator||An acid remains colorless.||A base gives it a pink color.|
|Litmus paper test||Turn the blue litmus paper red.||Turn the red litmus paper blue.|
|Chemical formula||The chemical formula begins with H for acids. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl).||The chemical formula ends with OH for bases. For example, sodium hydroxide (NaOH).|
|Force||It depends on the concentration of hydronium ions.||It depends on the concentration of hydroxide ions.|
|Dissociation||Acids dissociate to release hydrogen ions (H + ) when mixed with water.||Bases dissociate to release hydroxide ions (OH – ) when mixed with water.|
|Applications||It is used as a household cleaning agent, in carbonated beverages, in leather processing, and in preservatives and fertilizers.||It is used in soaps, detergents, gastric medications (antacids).|
Acids and bases impact daily life because they play an important role in many reactions, from digesting food to removing soap residue from the shower wall. Acids and bases are important in balancing the pH levels in the body so that they remain at a level of 7. When a person consumes acidic foods, the body uses a buffer system to neutralize the positive ions produced by the acids. On the other hand, bases are necessary to regulate and control the body becoming too alkaline.
We conclude that both acids and bases are an important part of life and are found in the environment, in food, and in chemicals, including pharmaceuticals. They are vital, not only in the chemistry lab but also in our daily lives.