DNA, RNA, and proteins are the three main components that play important roles for living organisms. Difference Between DNA and RNA
The concept of DNA is widely known and as almost everyone knows, it has to do with the storage of genetic data that can be decisive in the behavior and traits that stand out in humans and other organisms. However, DNA does not work alone; since RNA and proteins also play their role in determining the work of cells.
RNA and DNA have some similarities, but also their differences. Next we will see what are the differences between DNA and RNA.
DNA Difference Between DNA and RNA
DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid . This is largely responsible for how people look physically ( phenotype ) and how they act, as well as certain health conditions and traits that distinguish them. It is also responsible for storing genetic information about how and what work each cell must do.
It is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used for the development and function of cells in living organisms and many viruses . E l DNA is one macromolecule essential for the existence of all living organisms .
The genetic information is encoded as a sequence of nucleotides : guanine , adenine , thymine , and cytosine . DNA tells to each cell what proteins have to do and also is responsible for storing long – term data .
The type of protein in a cell is what determines its function . The DNA is inherited from parents to children , so they share similar traits.
The DNA molecule has a double helix shape , resembling a ladder that twists into a spiral . Each rung of the ladder has a pair of nucleotides that stores the information . The backbone of DNA is made up of a sugar ( deoxyribose) and a phosphate group , from which DNA gets its name .
The nucleotides are attached to the sugar in a special formation . The adenine (A ), thymine (T ), cytosine ( C) and guanine ( G) are nucleotides that always form pairs AT and GC; even though they can be found in any order in DNA . The adenine and thymine pair to make two hydrogen bonds , while cytosine and guanine make three Hydrogen bonds. When the order is different it is as if the DNA write “codes” with “letters” that tell a cell ‘s duties to perform .
The ribonucleic acid ( RNA) molecule is a single chain which plays a vital role in encoding, decoding , regulation and expression of genes. S imilar to DNA, it consists of the same nucleotide , but these are in shorter chains .
The RNA is a molecule of single – stranded . Each nucleotide is composed of sugar ribose with carbons numbered 1 to the 5. The carbon atoms are composed of four bases different : Adenine ( A), guanine (G ), cytosine ( C) and uracil (U ).
The RNA backbone is made up of ribose sugar attached with a phosphate group and the bases . The bases are always formed as follows: GC and AU; although they can be found in any order .
Unlike DNA, RNA is found outside the nucleus of cells and is not protected inside.
There are several types of RNA: transfer RNA ( tRNA ) , messenger RNA (mRNA ), ribosomal RNA ( rRNA ) … All of these perform different functions in the body . The RNA polymerase is responsible for decoding the genetic data of l DNA , that the mRNA used then to direct how proteins act in the body . The tRNA is responsible for the delivery of amino acids to ribosomes, where rRNA binds amino acids to create specific proteins . Therefore, proteins are made up of a combination of different amino acids.
So RNA plays an important role in decoding and transmitting the genetic makeup found in DNA, which is then used to create the proteins needed by our body .
Key differences between RNA and DNA
- DNA and RNA differ in their structure and function.
- RNA has a single-stranded structure , while DNA is made up of long chains of nucleotides. E l RNA consists of short chains of nucleotides.
- The backbone of the DNA consisting of sugar deoxyribose , while the of the RNA containing the sugar ribose.
- In DNA, the complementary one to adenine ( A) is thymine (T ) ; while in RNA it is uracil (U).
- DNA is responsible for storing the genetic makeup , while RNA is responsible for transmitting that makeup and helping to create proteins.