Difference between Gene and Chromosome

Both genes and chromosomes are part of our DNA chain and play an equally important role in the retention of information. The chromosome has many genes and these genes contain the information to build specific proteins.  Difference between Gene and Chromosome

Let’s learn more in detail about the difference between genes and chromosomes.

Gene vs chromosome  Difference between Gene and Chromosome

The following are the main differences between gene and chromosome:

GENES CHROMOSOME
The gene is located on the chromosome. Chromosomes are the packed structure of a DNA with proteins.
Genes are not visible under a microscope. Chromosomes are visible under a microscope.
A single gene is a locus on a chromosome. A single chromosome is made up of many genes.
Genes are made up of DNA or RNA. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, histones, and RNA.
Genetic mutations are small. Chromosomal mutations are relatively large.
Genetic mutations lead to point mutations and frame shift mutations: insertions and deletions Chromosomal mutations lead to chromosomal abnormalities such as gene deletion, duplication, rearrangement, and inversion.

What are genes?

A gene is a section of DNA that participates in the transport of information for a particular trait. They are functional units of heredity and are made of DNA.

Genes are responsible for heredity and this is the reason why we all have similar characteristics from both parents, such as eye pigmentation, hair color, etc. There are about 29 to 30 thousand genes in every cell of the human body. The term gene was first coined in 1909 by a Danish botanist Wilhelm Johannsen.

What are chromosomes ?

Chromosomes are fused threadlike structures and are made up of proteins and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid – DNA. They are found mainly within the nucleus of animal and plant cells. They are passed on to the offspring of their parents, for generations.

The term chromosome is derived from the ancient Greek word for colored body. Each human cell contains 46 or 23 pairs of chromosomes. These chromosomes play an important role in the cell division process and ensure that DNA molecules are copied and distributed evenly.

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