Difference Between Industrialization and Urbanization

It is common for terms like “urbanization” and “industrialization” to be used in history and sociology classes, especially in these times; in which there is a great boom in both.  Difference Between Industrialization and Urbanization

Both concepts are used so much that there are people who have come to think that they are synonymous, despite the fact that in reality they are different things that may have some elements in common. In case you also have some doubts about it or you just want a little more information, keep reading, because below we will explain what the difference is between urbanization and industrialization.

INDUSTRIALIZATION  Difference Between Industrialization and Urbanization

In general, when in History we talk about Industrialization it refers to the description of a period in which a country or a nation changes from small rural industries to large factories and large-scale industries. In this sense, many of the countries that today are considered more developed experienced a considerable process of industrialization between 1760 and 1840. This process that had its origin in England, then spread throughout the rest of Europe and later reached the United States. States and other countries.

Likewise, this term refers to the process of exchanging productions by hand for production machines that do the work; This process also brings with it many changes in the society and economy of a region, a country or a nation; since capitalism rises hand in hand with it, where money and big companies play an enormous role in government policies.

In industrialized countries, science and technology are typically among the most prominent sectors, as new inventions that could enable increased production are highly dependent on these two aforementioned fields.

Despite all the benefits that Industrialization could have brought with it, there is a large number of citizens who criticize two things, which are:

  • The exploitation of the working class.
  • Exploitation and damage to the environment.


On the other hand, when we speak of urbanization we have to take into account that it is a product of Industrialization; since most urban areas  are formed as a result of large-scale industries being established their

Large companies require a large number of workers who work long hours, so these workers are forced to move closer to their workplaces in order to keep their jobs; In this way, many employees create small communities in areas close to the companies, and as the latter grow, so do the former.

Based on the above, it can be said that the clearest way to define what urbanization is is the following: it is the process in which people residing in rural areas (such as towns and villages) migrate to large cities in search of of greater facilities and work.

Finally, these two processes described so far have their positive and negative sides; for example, urbanization includes jobs with better wages, more opportunities, and greater access to goods and services; but also greater exploitation, high cost of living and damage to the environment. Industrialization, on the other hand, has as positive the fact that there is evidence of progress in both science and technology; however, it also hurts the environment and people have to work long hours.

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