Difference Between Ionic and Covalent Bond

In order to create molecules and compounds, the atoms start to form bonds with each other. A bond is a chemical process that occurs from the attraction between two or more atoms. Difference Between Ionic and Covalent Bond

A chemical bond is the result of the electrostatic attractive force. Depending on the strength of these links, they can be classified into “strong links” and “weak links”. The most common examples of strong bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds. For this reason, below we will tell you what the difference between the two is.

IONIC BOND  Difference Between Ionic and Covalent Bond

It is a chemical bond between two different atoms (one metallic and one non-metallic) in which one atom gives up an electron to another (there is a transfer). In this case, one atom loses an electron and the other gains an extra electron.

The metal ion that loses an electron has a positive charge, while the nonmetal ion that gains the electron has a negative charge. As in these cases opposites attract, these ions are strongly attracted to each other with such force that they end up forming crystalline lattices.

In general, ionic compounds are in the form of solids, that is, salts. They are highly soluble in water and have a high melting point; they also have high electrical conductivity.

COVALENT BOND

This is another type of strong chemical bond. It takes place between similar atoms (that is, two non-metallic ones). In a covalent bond the two atoms join together to share an electron, rather than one atom taking an electron from another.

In covalent bonding there is a stable balance between the attractive and repulsive forces of the atoms, since they share the electron. These bonds can be classified into single, double and triple covalent bonds; depending on how many electrons they share. Each shared electron constitutes a link.

In this type of bond, when an atom has an electron in its outer shell and another atom requires an electron to make up its shell, they come together to share the electron. In this way, a stable electronic configuration is achieved.

In conclusion, chemical bonds are made in such a way that atoms can have their complete outer shell, this means that they have a stable electronic configuration. In the ionic bond, when the metallic atom has a single electron in its outer shell and the non-metallic one needs an electron to complete its shell; the metallic atom shifts its electron to the non-metallic. In the same way, in the covalent bond the electron is shared in order to achieve equilibrium.

Key differences between ionic bond and covalent bond

  • The ionic bond occurs between two different atoms (metallic and non-metallic), while the covalent bond occurs between two equal atoms (non-metallic).
  • In the covalent bond there is an electron compartment, while in the ionic bond there is an electron transfer.
  • Ionic bonds have a high melting and boiling point, while covalent bonds usually have a low point.

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