The set of living organisms can be divided into two groups based on the fundamental structure of their cells. Consequently, although it is generally spoken of the difference between animal and vegetal cell; the truth is that cells can also be classified as prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell
To clarify any doubts you may have, below we tell you what the difference between the two is.
PROKARYOTIC CELLS Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic cells are those that lack a nucleus. This means that the genetic material, that is, the DNA, is found dispersed in the cytoplasm. The term “prokaryote” derives from the Greek word “prokaryota.”
Most organisms made up of this type of cell have only one of these and are called unicellular organisms. In these cases, reproduction occurs by binary fission .
Living beings composed of prokaryotic cells are divided into two groups:
- Archaea (Arches)
They are the cells that have a delimited nucleus. Eukaryote is a term derived from the Greek word “eukaryota”. This type of cell constitutes the living beings of all kingdoms, except the ‘monera’. In this case, the process of cell division occurs in two ways:
- Mitosis – a cell divides to produce two genetically identical cells.
- Meiosis – where sexual reproduction is required.
The genetic material or DNA is contained in the nucleus of these cells and is structured and organized in chromosomes. Thus, all animals are made up of eukaryotic cells; including of course human beings.
Key differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell
- Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not.
- DNA in prokaryotic cells has a circular circuit, while in eukaryotes it is linear.
- Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells.
- Organisms with prokaryotic cells are unicellular, while those with eukaryotic cells are multicellular.
- Eukaryotic cells always have a cytoskeleton, while prokaryotic cells do not.
- In prokaryotic cells, cell division occurs by binary fission; while in eukaryotes it can be due to mitosis or meiosis.
- Reproduction in prokaryotic cells is always asexual, while in eukaryotes it can be sexual or asexual.
- Prokaryotic cells have mesosomas, while eukaryotic cells do not.