Diabetes is a metabolism disorder that occurs due to the improper use of glucose in the body. The body uses glucose with the help of insulin that is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas, a glandular organ. The d IABETES is produced under two conditions, insulin deficiency and resistance to it. Depending on these conditions, the type of diabetes is determined. Difference between Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes
According to the American Diabetes Association, this disease is classified into 3 types; But below we will focus on two of the most common, therefore, we will clarify for you what is the difference between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
DIABETES TYPE 1
Type 1 diabetes occurs in 5-10% of diabetes patients worldwide. Among its main causes are problems in the immune system. A failure in this system can cause the body to develop an autoimmune mechanism that affects the pancreatic cells, decreasing the production of insulin.
Insulin controls the use and amount of glucose in the body. An insulin insufficiency leading to sequentially increasing the level of blood glucose. D IABETES type 1 commonly affects teenagers, ie, usually appears in adolescence.
Some obvious symptoms in type 1 diabetes include weight loss, excessive hunger, increased thirst, polyuria (frequent urination), abnormal reduction in saliva (xerostomia), blurred vision, fatigue, nausea, and tendencies to vomit.
Among the factors considered as triggers of this type of diabetes are environmental factors such as poor diet, as well as genetic predisposition, cells affected by certain viruses , among others.
Within this category there are other subcategories: type 1a diabetes, which is latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (also called LADA), and idiopathic type 1b diabetes.
In the case of 1a, the body’s immune system becomes overactive and misidentifies beta cells as invading cells.
T cells, especially CD4 and CD8 of the immune system; they assume the role of opposing and leading to a pathogenic reflex by intrusion of the pancreatic islets and destroy the beta cells. Prolonged destruction of endogenous insulin-producing cells leads to a deficiency of insulin in the body.
This type of diabetes can be detected by a laboratory test. Type 1a diabetes is treated with medications, however, it also sometimes requires insulin replacement therapy.
On the other hand, type 1 diabetes is treated with regular medical treatment and monitoring of blood sugar and ketone in the bloodstream; in addition to an adequate and supervised diet.
The most common treatments include injectable insulin or an insulin pump that artificially introduces insulin into the body. You cannot do without this substance as it is an essential element to maintain a balanced metabolism.
TYPE 2 DIABETES
This is the most common form of diabetes that has been recorded in diabetic patients. It represents between 90-95% of all cases of diabetes.
When what occurs is insulin resistance and not insulin deficiency, we are talking about type 2 diabetes. Most patients who suffer from it are due to genetic predisposition. They also often suffer from obesity.
Symptoms of this disease include: frequent urge to urinate, increased thirst, excessive hunger, and disorders of the peripheral nervous system.
Certain medications can also predispose people to type 2 diabetes. In addition to genetic factors, others that contribute to the appearance of this disease are lack of physical exercise, poor quality diet, prolonged stress and other non-recommended lifestyles. .
Treatment for type 2 diabetes includes regular monitoring of blood sugar and ketone levels. Common medical care for this type of diabetes includes oral pills such as metformin, diet control, and other non-insulin-dependent treatments.
A controlled diet in which sugary drinks are minimized and more vegetables are consumed is essential for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.
High blood glucose levels for a long time can lead to other pathogenic disorders such as: nervous system disorders, cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure (requiring dialysis treatment) and vision disorders due to damage to the retina.
In some cases, people with this type of diabetes require parallel medical care to treat high blood pressure, excess lipids in the blood, and arteriosclerosis. Proper medical care for type 2 diabetes includes attention to cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Key differences between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes
- Type 1 diabetes is caused by low insulin in the body, while type 2 diabetes is caused by resistance to this substance.
- Type 1 diabetes is more common in teens, while type 2 diabetes occurs more often in adults.
- Worldwide, type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes.
- Genetic factors play a more important role in type 1 diabetes, while in type 2 diabetes (although genetics are important), environmental factors are more important.
- Type 1 diabetes can be sudden or gradual, while type 2 is gradual.