Inductive and deductive are two different reasoning methods, which are also widely applied both in Philosophy and in almost all scientific research. Difference b/w Inductive and Deductive reasoning
These methods are part of the logical thinking and of analytical processes, but it is important to know that are completely different the one from the other and which are used depending on the needs of the researcher .
As we know that the completion of your task and your grade will probably depend on the information we provide here on this topic, below we will explain what the difference is between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning.
INDUCTIVE REASONING Difference b/w Inductive and Deductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning is also known as “bottom-up” logic. It is a type of reasoning that focuses on creating generalized statements from specific examples or events.
When this type of reasoning is carried out, one works from concrete examples that may or may not be true; then later they are transferred to generalized concepts.
To make it better understood, let’s imagine that on a high school track team are Frederick and Julien; both of tall stature; From this and following a form of inductive reasoning we would say that all the runners on the athletic team must be tall. In the end, this could turn out to be true or false.
In many cases, inductive reasoning is criticized; since it is usually considered as an imprecise method, since generalizations are made from few specific examples.
Inductive reasoning was popularly used by Isaac Newton when developing his Theory of Gravity. Newton used his observations of planetary motions and of apples falling from his home tree and induced that there was a force responsible for the way certain things worked.
Despite the criticisms, the inductive method is important for science, since it serves as a starting point for the realization of tests that later provide evidence about the truth or falsity of the assumption.
It is also important to mention that the prejudices that almost all of us have are closely related to the use of inductive reasoning (who would say it huh). People (at least most) tend to make general claims based on particular events.
For example, if we learn that the thief who broke into our neighbor’s house and that the subject who was driving drunk and caused an accident, had tattoos; more than one will say or at least think that all tattooed people have behavior problems, ignoring the many cases in which non-tattooed people have perpetuated similar actions and the number of tattooed people who have never had behavior problems.
Deductive reasoning differs from inductive reasoning, because it uses generalized concepts to try to reach more specific ones. For this reason it is also known as the “top-down” approach.
The researcher who uses this method begins with a general idea and works his way up to a specific example. In this case, conclusions are inferred from an existing theory.
This form of reasoning links the premises to the conclusion, stating that if all of these are true; so the latter is also.
The following could be an example of deductive reasoning:
All animals are deadly.
A dog is an animal.
Therefore, a dog is also deadly.
As it could be seen, the generalized theory is that all animals are mortal, from this it is affirmed that a specimen of an animal species (a dog) is also mortal.
In the same way that it happens when it comes to inductive reasoning, also in this case, the final conclusion can turn out to be false or true; depending on whether the generalized theory is wrong or not.
A syllogism is a type of deductive reasoning, widely used in mathematics . It is very popular if A = B and B = C then A = C .
Differences between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning
- The inductive method starts from something specific to reach a general conclusion, while the deductive method takes generalized concepts to reach a specific conclusion.
- An example of inductive reasoning is: My Spanish Language teacher is fat and my brother’s too, therefore, all Spanish Language teachers are fat.
- An example of deductive reasoning is: My mother never tells lies. Yesterday my mother told me that a cat spoke to her. Since she never lies, I’m sure what she told me is true.